We use Annual Survey of Entrepreneurs to measure innovation behavior in high-tech industries. Immigrant-owned firms display uniformly higher rates of innovation in for 15 of 16 different innovation measures – the only exception is for copyright/trademark – and the immigrant advantage holds for older firms as well as for recent start-ups and for every level… Read More »
The annual quota on new issuances of H-1B status fell from 195,000 to 65,000 in 2004, drastically reducing the hiring of foreign-born, highly-skilled, professionals by US companies. This restriction did not reduce hiring of new H-1B workers from India, in computer-related occupations, or at firms using the H-1B program intensively.
Examining the importance of scientific and technical information in National Research Council reports A frequent lament among researchers is that public policy makers should pay more attention to scientific and technical information (STI). If there is any single area where one might expect STI to be used in public policy making and agenda setting it… Read More »
We organized an innovative workshop to foster knowledge exchange among diverse practitioners of citizen science in agri-food systems, including natural and social scientists, food and farming advocates, and community organizers. The result was a robust and surprising exchange of ideas and “lessons learned” that can serve as a guide to researchers and funding bodies seeking… Read More »
A growing body of evidence indicates that research teams are increasing in size across almost every discipline. Several theories explain the rise in collaboration, including the accumulation of knowledge, declining communication costs, increasing capital intensity, shifting authorship norms, and increasing returns to research portfolio diversification. However, a paucity of empirical research focuses on disentangling these… Read More »
Despite evidence of the growing importance of team knowledge production, our understanding of factors influencing team formation remains limited. In particular, the relationship between human capital and research technology remains under-explored despite the increasingly influential role of research tools in adding knowledge in the process of scientific research. Conditions of access to research technology influence… Read More »
The ORCID identifier can be used as a tool for author name disambiguation, but with care until its use has diffused more widely into the scholarly population, especially in Asia.
Any research funding and/or research-performing organization in the public, private, and non-profit sectors needs to adopt a portfolio-wide perspective to R&D management to better align research project investments with the organization’s overall strategic goals. Private sector firms have increasingly done so utilizing powerful new methodological tools and large amounts of data becoming available. In contrast,… Read More »
Prizes are incentives that have long been used by public and private sponsors to accomplish a whole range of goals, including scientific and technological development. By offering sizable rewards and holding exciting competitions, they attract the attention of the most diverse participants, the media and the public. They can also play an important role in… Read More »
Post-employment covenants not to compete (hereafter, “non-competes”) are frequently used in a variety of high- and low-tech industries, ostensibly as a means of helping firms to protect their investments in intellectual property and human capital. As currently sanctioned, however, non-competes impose substantial costs on workers for which they are not clearly compensated. If firms are… Read More »